ACGIH - American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygeniests
AChE - acetylcholinesterase
Action Level - the exposure concentration at which certain provisions of the NIOSH recommended standard must be initiated.
ADI - acceptable daily intake
AIHA - American Industrial Hygiene Associaton
ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials
brd - domestic or laboratory bird
Bw - body weight
bwd - wild bird species
Ca- potential human carcinogen
CAS - Chemical Abstract Service
CASRN - Chemical Abstract Service Registery Number
cat - adult cat
cc - cubic centimeter
CCINFO - Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, Toronto, Canada
CDC - Center for Disease Control (in Atlanta, Georgia)
CFR - Code of Federal Regulations
chd - child
Che - cholinesterase
CIB - NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin
CIS - Fein-Marquardt and Co., Chemical Information System
ckn - chicken, adult (male or female)
CL - ceiling limit - the concentration that should not be exceeded even instantaneously.
Clear Evidence - when carcinogenicity is demonstrated by studies that are interpreted as showing a chemically related increased incidence of malignant neoplasms, studies that exhibit a substantially increased incidence of benign neoplasms, or studies that exhibit an increased incidence of a combination of malignant and benign neoplasms where each increases with dose.
CODEN - a unique six-letter character code derived from the American Society for Testing and Materials CODEN for Periodical Titles and the CAS Source Index.
ctl - cattle or horse
dBA - decibel, weighted according to the A scale, which approximates the response of the human ear.
dck - duck
DEA - US Drug Enforcement Administration
dog - adult dog
dom - domestic animals such as goat or sheep
DOT - US Department of Transportation
ECG - electrocardiogram
EPA -- US Environmental Protection Agency
Equivocal Evidence - when carcinogenicity is demonstrated by studies that are interpreted as showing a chemically related marginal increase of neoplasms.
fbr - fiber
FR - Federal Register
frg - adult frog
GC - gas chromatography (a technique used to separate mixtures of volatile chemicals from each other)
GI - gastrointestional
gpg - guinea pig
grb - gerbil
ham - hamster
HDT - highest dose tested
HEC - human equivalent concentration
hmn - human
hor - horse or donkey
HPLC - high performance liquid chromatography (a technique used to separate mixtures of nonvolatile chemicals from each other)
HSDB - Hazardous Substances Data Bank
ial - intraaural (ear)
IARC - United Nations International Agency for Research on Cancer.
iat - intraarterial (artery)
ice - intracerebral (cerebrum)
ICR - Institute of Cancer Research
icv - intracervical (cervix)
idr - intradermal (dermis (skin))
idu - intraduodenal (duodenum)
ihl - inhalation (route of exposure used for a chemical)
IMO - International Maritime Organization
imp - surgical implant
ims - intramuscular (muscle)
Inadequate Evidence - when, because of major qualitative or quantitative limitatons, the studies cannot be interpreted as showing eiher the presence or absence of a carcinogenic effect. This indicates that one of two conditions prevailed: (a) there are few pertinent data; or (b) the available studies, while showing evidence of association, do not exclude chance, bias, or confounding.
Inadequate Study - when carcinogenicity is not demonstrated because of major qualitative or quantitative limitations, and the studies cannot be interpreted as valid for showing either the presence or absence of a carcinogenic effect.
inf - human infant
ipc - intraplacental (placenta)
ipl - intrapleural (pleural cavity)
ipr - intraperitoneal (peritoneal cavity)
IRIS - Integrated Risk Information System (Instant EPAs IRIS is one of the publications from Instant Reference Sources, Inc. that is hyperlinked to this publication)
irn - intrarenal (kidney)
isp - intraspinal (spinal canal)
itr - intratracheal (trachea)
itt - intratesticular (testes)
iut - intrauterine (uterus)
ivg - intravaginal (vagina)
ivn - intravenous (vein)
kdy - kidney
kg - killigram (one thousand grams)
L - liter (one thousand milliliters)
LC - lethal concentration
LC50 - Lethal Concentration 50 - a calculated concentration of a substance in air, exposure to which for a specified length of time, is expected to cause the death of 50% of an entire defined experimental population. It is determined from the exposure to the substance of a significant number from that population.
LCLo - Lethal Concentration Low - the lowest concentration of a substance in air, other than LC50, which has been reported to have caused death in humans or animals. The reported concentrations may be entered for periods of exposure which are less than 24 hours (acute) or greater than 24 hours (subacute and chronic).
LD - lethal dose
LD50 - Lethal Dose 50 - a calculated dose of a substance which is expected to cause the death of 50% of an experimental animal population. It is determined from the exposure to the substance by any route other than inhalation of a significant number from that population.
LDLo - Lethal Dose Low - the lowest dose (lower than LD50) of a substance introduced by any route, other than inhalation, over any given period of time, in one or more divided portions and reported to have caused death in humans or animals.
LDT - lowest dose tested
leu - leukemia
Limited Evidence - evidence of carcinogenicity when data suggest a carcinogenic effect but are limited because: (a) the studies involve a single species, strain or experiment; or (b) the experiments are restricted by inadequate dosage levels, inadequate duration of exposure to the agent, inadequate duration of exposure to the agent, inadequate period of follow-up, poor survival, too few animals, or inadequate reporting; or (c) the neoplasms produced often occur spontaneously and, in the past, have been difficult to classify as malignant by histological criteria alone. This indicates that a causal interpretation is credible, but that alternative explanations, such as chance, bias, or confounding, could not adequately be excluded.
LOAEL - lowest observed adverse effect level
lym - lymphatic (pertaining to lymph glands, cells or the lymphatic system)
mam - mammal of an unidentified species
man - adult man
MEV - minimum effective dose
mg - milligram
mky - monkey
MLD - mild - a well defined erythema and slight edema on the skin where the dose was applied.
mmol - millimole
MOD - moderate - moderate to severe erythema and severe edema on the skin where the dose was applied resulting in a raised area of about 1 mm.
MOE - margin of exposure
MSHA - Mine Safety and Health Administration
MTD - maximum tolerated dose
MTL - median threshold limit
mul - multiple
mus - mouse
NCI - National Cancer Institute
ng - nanogram
NIH - National Institues of Health
NIOSH - National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
NLM - National Library of Medicine
nml - non-mammalian species
nmol - nanomole
No Evidence - when several adequate studies are available which show that, within the limits of the tests used, the chemical is not carcinogenic.
NOEL - no observed effect level
NRC - National Research Council
nse - non-standard exposure (for example, a spill or accidental exposure)
NTIS - National Technical Informational System
NTP - National Toxicology Program
ocu - ocular (eye)
ORD - US EPA Office of Research and Development
orl - oral (through the mouth via feeding or drinking)
oth - other (?)
otr - other (?)
OTS - US EPA Office of Toxic Substances
par - parenteral (skin)
PCB - polychlorinated biphenyls
PEL - OSHA permissible exposure level
pg - picogram
pgn - pigeon
pig - adult pig
pmol - picomole
ppb - parts per billion
pph - parts per hundred
ppm - parts per million
ppt - parts per trillion
qal - laboratory quail
rat - adult male, adult female or unspecifided sex of rat
rbt - adult rabbit
rec - rectal (rectum or colon)
REL - NIOSH recommended exposure limi
rns - rinsed
RTECS - Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances
RV - residual volume
sat - saturated
scu - subcutaneous (under the skin)
SEV - severe - severe erythema (beet redness) to slight eschar formation (injuries in depth) and severe edema (raised more than 1 mm and extending beyond area of exposure) on the skin where the dose was applied.
(skin) - potential contribution to overall exposure by the cutaneous route including mucous membranes and eyes.
skn - skin
SMR - standard mortality rate
Some Evidence - when carcinogenicity is demonstrated by studies that are interpreted as showing a chemically related increased incidence of benign neoplasms, studies that exhibit marginal increases in neoplasms of several organs/tissues, or studies that exhibit a slight increase in uncommon malignant or benign neoplasms.
specie - species of animal tested (e.g., rat, rabbit, human, etc.)
sql - squirrel
STEL - short term exposure limit
Sufficient Evidence - evidence of carcinogenicity when there is an increased incidence of malignant tumors: (a) in multiple species or strains; or (b) in multiple experiments (preferably with different routes of administration or using different dose levels); or (c) to an unusual degree with regard to incidence, site or type of tumor, or age at onset. Additional evidence may be provided by data on dose-response effects. This indicates that there is a causal relationship between the exposure and human cancer.
TC - toxic concentration
TCLo - Toxic Concentration Low - the lowest concentration of substance in air to which humans or animals have been exposed for any given period of time, that has produced any toxic effect in humans, or has produced a tumorigenic or reproductive effect in animals or humans.
TD - toxic dose
TDLo - Toxic Dose Low - the lowest dose of a substance introduced by any route other than inhalation, over any given period of time, to which humans or animals have been exposed and reported to produce any non-significant toxic effects in humans or to produce non-significant tumorigenic or reproductive effects in animals or humans.
TEC - Toxic Effects Code
TLV - Threshold Limit Values - recommended limits proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) to which most workers can be exposed wihout adverse effect. TLVs may be expressed as a time-weighted average (TWA), as a short term exposure limit (STEL), or as a ceiling value (CL).
tod - toad
TOXNET - Toxicology Data Network
trk - turkey
TSCA - Toxic Substances Control Act
TSCATS - Toxic Substance Control Act Test Submission
TWA - time-weighted average
ug - microgram
umol - micromole
unr - unreported
WHO - United Nations World Health Organization.
wmn - woman