Abbreviations from Instant Tox-Base

ACGIH - American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygeniests

AChE - acetylcholinesterase

Action Level - the exposure concentration at which certain provisions of the NIOSH recommended standard must be initiated.

ADI - acceptable daily intake

AIHA - American Industrial Hygiene Associaton

ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials

brd - domestic or laboratory bird

Bw - body weight

bwd - wild bird species

Ca- potential human carcinogen

CAS - Chemical Abstract Service

CASRN - Chemical Abstract Service Registery Number

cat - adult cat

cc - cubic centimeter

CCINFO - Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, Toronto, Canada

CDC - Center for Disease Control (in Atlanta, Georgia)

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations

chd - child

Che - cholinesterase

CIB - NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin

CIS - Fein-Marquardt and Co., Chemical Information System

ckn - chicken, adult (male or female)

CL - ceiling limit - the concentration that should not be exceeded even instantaneously.

Clear Evidence - when carcinogenicity is demonstrated by studies that are interpreted as showing a chemically related increased incidence of malignant neoplasms, studies that exhibit a substantially increased incidence of benign neoplasms, or studies that exhibit an increased incidence of a combination of malignant and benign neoplasms where each increases with dose.

CODEN - a unique six-letter character code derived from the American Society for Testing and Materials CODEN for Periodical Titles and the CAS Source Index.

ctl - cattle or horse

dBA - decibel, weighted according to the A scale, which approximates the response of the human ear.

dck - duck

DEA - US Drug Enforcement Administration

dog - adult dog

dom - domestic animals such as goat or sheep

DOT - US Department of Transportation

ECG - electrocardiogram

EPA -- US Environmental Protection Agency

Equivocal Evidence - when carcinogenicity is demonstrated by studies that are interpreted as showing a chemically related marginal increase of neoplasms.

fbr - fiber

FR - Federal Register

frg - adult frog

GC - gas chromatography (a technique used to separate mixtures of volatile chemicals from each other)

GI - gastrointestional

gpg - guinea pig

grb - gerbil

ham - hamster

HDT - highest dose tested

HEC - human equivalent concentration

hmn - human

hor - horse or donkey

HPLC - high performance liquid chromatography (a technique used to separate mixtures of nonvolatile chemicals from each other)

HSDB - Hazardous Substances Data Bank

ial - intraaural (ear)

IARC - United Nations International Agency for Research on Cancer.

iat - intraarterial (artery)

ice - intracerebral (cerebrum)

ICR - Institute of Cancer Research

icv - intracervical (cervix)

idr - intradermal (dermis (skin))

idu - intraduodenal (duodenum)

ihl - inhalation (route of exposure used for a chemical)

IMO - International Maritime Organization

imp - surgical implant

ims - intramuscular (muscle)

Inadequate Evidence - when, because of major qualitative or quantitative limitatons, the studies cannot be interpreted as showing eiher the presence or absence of a carcinogenic effect. This indicates that one of two conditions prevailed: (a) there are few pertinent data; or (b) the available studies, while showing evidence of association, do not exclude chance, bias, or confounding.

Inadequate Study - when carcinogenicity is not demonstrated because of major qualitative or quantitative limitations, and the studies cannot be interpreted as valid for showing either the presence or absence of a carcinogenic effect.

inf - human infant

ipc - intraplacental (placenta)

ipl - intrapleural (pleural cavity)

ipr - intraperitoneal (peritoneal cavity)

IRIS - Integrated Risk Information System (Instant EPAs IRIS is one of the publications from Instant Reference Sources, Inc. that is hyperlinked to this publication)

irn - intrarenal (kidney)

isp - intraspinal (spinal canal)

itr - intratracheal (trachea)

itt - intratesticular (testes)

iut - intrauterine (uterus)

ivg - intravaginal (vagina)

ivn - intravenous (vein)

kdy - kidney

kg - killigram (one thousand grams)

L - liter (one thousand milliliters)

LC - lethal concentration

LC50 - Lethal Concentration 50 - a calculated concentration of a substance in air, exposure to which for a specified length of time, is expected to cause the death of 50% of an entire defined experimental population. It is determined from the exposure to the substance of a significant number from that population.

LCLo - Lethal Concentration Low - the lowest concentration of a substance in air, other than LC50, which has been reported to have caused death in humans or animals. The reported concentrations may be entered for periods of exposure which are less than 24 hours (acute) or greater than 24 hours (subacute and chronic).

LD - lethal dose

LD50 - Lethal Dose 50 - a calculated dose of a substance which is expected to cause the death of 50% of an experimental animal population. It is determined from the exposure to the substance by any route other than inhalation of a significant number from that population.

LDLo - Lethal Dose Low - the lowest dose (lower than LD50) of a substance introduced by any route, other than inhalation, over any given period of time, in one or more divided portions and reported to have caused death in humans or animals.

LDT - lowest dose tested

leu - leukemia

Limited Evidence - evidence of carcinogenicity when data suggest a carcinogenic effect but are limited because: (a) the studies involve a single species, strain or experiment; or (b) the experiments are restricted by inadequate dosage levels, inadequate duration of exposure to the agent, inadequate duration of exposure to the agent, inadequate period of follow-up, poor survival, too few animals, or inadequate reporting; or (c) the neoplasms produced often occur spontaneously and, in the past, have been difficult to classify as malignant by histological criteria alone. This indicates that a causal interpretation is credible, but that alternative explanations, such as chance, bias, or confounding, could not adequately be excluded.

LOAEL - lowest observed adverse effect level

lym - lymphatic (pertaining to lymph glands, cells or the lymphatic system)

mam - mammal of an unidentified species

man - adult man

MEV - minimum effective dose

mg - milligram

mky - monkey

MLD - mild - a well defined erythema and slight edema on the skin where the dose was applied.

mmol - millimole

MOD - moderate - moderate to severe erythema and severe edema on the skin where the dose was applied resulting in a raised area of about 1 mm.

MOE - margin of exposure

MSHA - Mine Safety and Health Administration

MTD - maximum tolerated dose

MTL - median threshold limit

mul - multiple

mus - mouse

NCI - National Cancer Institute

ng - nanogram

NIH - National Institues of Health

NIOSH - National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health

NLM - National Library of Medicine

nml - non-mammalian species

nmol - nanomole

No Evidence - when several adequate studies are available which show that, within the limits of the tests used, the chemical is not carcinogenic.

NOEL - no observed effect level

NRC - National Research Council

nse - non-standard exposure (for example, a spill or accidental exposure)

NTIS - National Technical Informational System

NTP - National Toxicology Program

ocu - ocular (eye)

ORD - US EPA Office of Research and Development

orl - oral (through the mouth via feeding or drinking)

oth - other (?)

otr - other (?)

OTS - US EPA Office of Toxic Substances

par - parenteral (skin)

PCB - polychlorinated biphenyls

PEL - OSHA permissible exposure level

pg - picogram

pgn - pigeon

pig - adult pig

pmol - picomole

ppb - parts per billion

pph - parts per hundred

ppm - parts per million

ppt - parts per trillion

qal - laboratory quail

rat - adult male, adult female or unspecifided sex of rat

rbt - adult rabbit

rec - rectal (rectum or colon)

REL - NIOSH recommended exposure limi

rns - rinsed

RTECS - Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances

RV - residual volume

sat - saturated

scu - subcutaneous (under the skin)

SEV - severe - severe erythema (beet redness) to slight eschar formation (injuries in depth) and severe edema (raised more than 1 mm and extending beyond area of exposure) on the skin where the dose was applied.

(skin) - potential contribution to overall exposure by the cutaneous route including mucous membranes and eyes.

skn - skin

SMR - standard mortality rate

Some Evidence - when carcinogenicity is demonstrated by studies that are interpreted as showing a chemically related increased incidence of benign neoplasms, studies that exhibit marginal increases in neoplasms of several organs/tissues, or studies that exhibit a slight increase in uncommon malignant or benign neoplasms.

specie - species of animal tested (e.g., rat, rabbit, human, etc.)

sql - squirrel

STEL - short term exposure limit

Sufficient Evidence - evidence of carcinogenicity when there is an increased incidence of malignant tumors: (a) in multiple species or strains; or (b) in multiple experiments (preferably with different routes of administration or using different dose levels); or (c) to an unusual degree with regard to incidence, site or type of tumor, or age at onset. Additional evidence may be provided by data on dose-response effects. This indicates that there is a causal relationship between the exposure and human cancer.

TC - toxic concentration

TCLo - Toxic Concentration Low - the lowest concentration of substance in air to which humans or animals have been exposed for any given period of time, that has produced any toxic effect in humans, or has produced a tumorigenic or reproductive effect in animals or humans.

TD - toxic dose

TDLo - Toxic Dose Low - the lowest dose of a substance introduced by any route other than inhalation, over any given period of time, to which humans or animals have been exposed and reported to produce any non-significant toxic effects in humans or to produce non-significant tumorigenic or reproductive effects in animals or humans.

TEC - Toxic Effects Code

TLV - Threshold Limit Values - recommended limits proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) to which most workers can be exposed wihout adverse effect. TLVs may be expressed as a time-weighted average (TWA), as a short term exposure limit (STEL), or as a ceiling value (CL).

tod - toad

TOXNET - Toxicology Data Network

trk - turkey

TSCA - Toxic Substances Control Act

TSCATS - Toxic Substance Control Act Test Submission

TWA - time-weighted average

ug - microgram

umol - micromole

unr - unreported

WHO - United Nations World Health Organization.

wmn - woman